New motorable roads are being randomly opened in sensitive hillocks instead of repairing the old ones – thereby hundreds of Rhododendron and Sorbus spp forest have been massacred
There is considered opinion about the fact that Darjeeling Hilly Region is one of the richest biological reservoirs among the other hilly regions in the country. As far as record tells us that the richness of its biodiversity is due primarily to its great climatic variations and corresponding to the diverse habitats. Much of the interesting factors that contribute to its wonderfully attractiveness of this sub- Himalaya Region lies in the possibilities of seeing a vast varieties of plant species, animals, birds, butterflies, insects within a short distance. It is nothing but the altitude that causes to happen various climatic conditions at different heights which further combine together to create contrast in forest formation, topography and the physiographic of the land surface, soil type, habitat of animals, availability of varieties of food for biotic components. Geo-climatic variation is so finely defined that an ordinary lay man living in the vicinity of the forest could tell the occurrence of particular species of plants, animals ,birds etc at certain pockets of the hilly region very easily and accurately. Sultry hot climate of the tropical zones to the freezing zones of the semi- Alpine Region are the diverse climatic factors in which diverse biological components are known to occur enabling them to not only survive but they have become successful in their life cycle in the best niche. . Inspite of all these natural factors combined together to harbor a vast variety of flora-fauna, avifauna in the hills of Darjeeling a number of certain species of these are becoming endangered and their presence in the physical environment at this present situation. counts to be very scarce.. The tragic scenario is such that some of the plants, animals, birds have become very much threatened and if the trend is not checked in time and concerted efforts are not being made for reverse the ensuing trend these species will surely get extinct from this area for good. If these tragic scenarios are allowed to happen due to our apathy and selfishness the loss will be a ecologically disastrous in years to come as these species will be extinct before we could assess its scientific, ecological , medicinal, and economical values.
The economy of the “queen of the hills” mainly depends upon 3Ts: Tea, Timber and Tourism. The production areas of the former two products; tea gardens and Cryptomeria japonica (later Dhupi) forests, shine the beauty of the hills. The landscape dominated by tea gardens and Dhupi forests can easily magnetizes anybody. However, these Dhupi stands are being a source of environmental conflicts in the hills (Carrere 2006). The visitors, who have visited Darjeeling and fascinated with those Dhupi plantations, cannot realize the contentious growing under those stands. The belief of local people and environmental activists that Dhupi has negative impacts on ecosystem properties and process, could not match properly with the economic motive of forest department. Consequently, a paradigm shift in plantation management from monocultures conifers to the mixed species plantations occurred.
The scientific name for these plants, Ginkgo biloba, is more commonly used than the common name,"maidenhair-trees." An alternate spelling is, "gingko biloba." Ginkgo biloba trees are broadleaf, deciduous trees. They are also dioecious.
Characteristics of Ginkgo Biloba
Jurassic to recent
Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants with one extinct species, G. biloba, which is regarded as a living fossil. Fossils recognisably related to modern Ginkgo date back to the Permian, some 270 million years ago. The genus diversified and spread throughout Laurasia during the middle Jurassic and Cretaceous, but became much rarer thereafter. While it may seem improbable that a species may exist as a contiguous entity for many millions of years, many of the Ginkgo's life-history parameters fit. These are: extreme longevity; slow reproduction rate; (in Cenozoic and later times) a wide, apparently contiguous, but steadily contracting distribution coupled with, as far as can be demonstrated from the fossil record, extreme ecological conservatism (being restricted to light soils around rivers); and a low population density.
salamandarfig1100Salamanders are amphibians of the order Caudate (also called urodela) . This taxon includes the newts , a group of rough-skinned species in the salamander family Salamandridae. Salamander are differentiated from other amphibians (frogs and caecilians) conspicuously by the presence of a tail in all larvae, juveniles and adults, and by having limbs set at right angles to the body with forelimbs and hindlimbs of approximately equal size . Salamanders are distinguished from frogs and caecilians also by numerous characteristics of there skeleton and musculature.